Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a subtype of female urogenital fistula (UGF).
VVF is an abnormal fistulous tract extending between the bladder and the vagina that allows the continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vaginal vault.
In addition to the medical sequelae from these fistulas, they often have a profound effect on the patient's emotional well-being.
It is often caused by childbirth (in which case it is known as an obstetric fistula), when a prolonged labor presses the unborn child tightly against the pelvis, cutting off blood flow to the vesicovaginal wall. The affected tissue may necrotize, leaving a hole.
It can also be associated with hysterectomy.